Home Manufactured Chlorates (Part 2)

Home Manufactured Chlorates

Part 2

 

This is a continuation of the first part of the series on making Chlorates at home using DIY type methods suitable to a survival situation. If you want an introduction to Chlorates and why you would want to make them, then check out part 1 of the series.

In the first part I showed how Potassium Chlorate could be produced using common household bleach. In part 2 I’m going to show how you can make Sodium Chlorate from common household salt and electricity using electrolysis. In this method, electricity is used to convert salt, which is the chemical Sodium Chloride into Sodium Chlorate by adding three oxygen atoms from water to the sodium chloride.

To start with you will need a few things before you can begin. Number one is salt. In this tutorial I use common table salt which is Sodium Chloride, because it is the most common form of salt available and is cheap and easy to find. You could use Potassium Chloride as well and this would produce a better end product as I explained in the first part of the series. Secondly you will need a container with a lid. It should be plastic, ceramic or glass only, as a metal container will corrode. I have used a cheap disposable Tupperware container. Third is a source of electricity,  A power supply of 5 volts dc with the capability to handle at least 2 amps of current is a good starting point. I’ve used the power supply from a computer because it can produce 5 volts of really clean dc power and can handle well over 2 amps of current. In addition, they are extremely common. The fourth item is a set of electrodes. This is the most important part of the process because very few things will work. Mostly precious metals such as platinum or Titanium coated with rare-earth metal oxides. These can be purchased online for this very purpose and work quite well if you plan on making a lot of Chlorates, however they are not very common and that’s the point of this method. Luckily carbon will work well as an electrode material. Carbon rods are easily retrieved from 6 volt lantern batteries as I will show. Finally you will need some distilled water and some electrical wire.

 

To start, you will need to disassemble the lantern battery. Cutting around the top were the metal prongs are will allow you to remove the top and you will see 4 metal  tubes with wires attached to them.  Each of these is a cell and will produce 1.5 volts each with 4 in series making the 6 volts the battery is rated for. Cut the wires and pull the cells out of the plastic housing. The carbon rod is the piece in the center of each cell with a little metal cap on top. The cell is filled with a sticky paste of electrolyte and manganese dioxide.  You will need to pull the carbon rod out of the cell with some pliers. This is made difficult by the sticky paste in the battery. Pull straight out without twisting or tugging as the carbon rods are brittle and will snap if flexed too much. If the metal caps pops off that’s OK but they make good points to attach wire to. You will need two carbon rods. With the rods free you can wipe them down to clean off any remaining battery paste.

 

battery1CarbonRod`

 

 

 

Next you have to fit them through the lid of you container. If you use a plastic lid this is easy. Just heat up the rods and when they are hot enough, push them through the plastic and you have a perfect seal. If not, then a hole should be drilled through the lid the same size as the rods and sealed with hot glue or silicone.

 

Container1RodHeatedRodInsert

 

 

With this all done, you can begin the setup. I recommend doing this outside under cover or in a garage as it will produce some chlorine gas but mainly just because it will stink. Start by filling your container up with hot distilled water. Then pour this into another large container. Add salt to the water and stir. Keep adding salt until no more is dissolved in the water and let it sit for 15 minutes then pour it back into the first container, keeping any undissolved salt from going into the first container. put the lid onto the container and make sure the carbon rods are immersed into the salt solution. Attach a wire to each rod either by twisting it around the rod or to the metal cap if it’s still attached. Attach the power supply to the wire and turn it on. You  should see bubbles begin to form on the rods and a strong smell of bleach after a few minutes. Wrap the container in a towel to insulate it. The process will take about 5 days depending on how much solution  you used. The solution needs to remain fairly warm but not too hot as the electrodes will start to fall apart.

IMG_2405

When the solution is finished the electrodes will have dissolved a little bit and there will be a black power in the solution. You can filter this out with a paper towel and a funnel. Once everything is filtered you can begin to evaporate the water and, as this happens crystals of Sodium Chlorate will begin to grow. Removing the last little bit of water through normal evaporation might be a little difficult if you live in a humid or cold area. You can speed up the process a little with a heat lamp or a real low heat setting on a toaster oven or such. If you decided to use potassium chloride to start with. Another option is to put the filtered solution from the electrolysis reaction into a freezer to cause the Potassium Chlorate crystals to crystallize out of solution. You can then filter them out like I showed in part 1 of the series.

IMG_2430 IMG_2437IMG_2441

The final product can be purified even more by dissolving the Chlorate in as little boiling water as possible then cooling until crystals form again and discarding any liquid on top of the crystals of Chlorate.

I plan on going over a few other methods of Chlorate production in later articles using other sources of materials and equipment.

-Gabriel Shear

How To Think Like A Spy

From The Mind of Gabriel Shear

Saturday, January 16, 2016

______________________

Mind

How To Think Like A Spy

“The world is full of obvious things which nobody by any chance ever observes.”

– Sherlock Holmes

– The Hound of the Baskervilles

You see it in the movies… On TV. You read it in the books. Spies, Secret Agents, Special Forces. Men that remain calm, cool and collected even during the most dangerous moments. They seem so in control of the situation. One step ahead of everyone else. Resourceful, smart and strong. Almost as if they can see whats going to happen before it does and so are able to predict and act. Not react. This man, this idea is not totally in the realm of imagination. There is a large grain of truth to these representations. This is a desirable state of mind for anyone to be in. So we ponder in amazement at such skill and intelligence, wondering if we too can be like that guy.

We can…

Nature has honed your instinctual survival skills over thousands of years. Your gut feelings, the hair standing on the back of your neck, instantaneous reactions to spiders or snakes(or anything that looks like them). These things go to show that your animal mind does one thing, and it does it well.  KEEP YOU ALIVE!

To understand how you can use this primitive mind to allow you to perform almost superhuman feats of memory, reaction and recognition. You must first realize one thing. That one thing is the fact that you have two minds. Now, no I don’t mean that you have split personalities… well, at least most of us don’t. No no, what I mean is that you have two parts to your mind. The conscious mind and the sub-conscious mind. To start, the conscious mind is what you’re using to read this, it’s the advanced part of your brain. The part that makes you “intelligent”. This part of the mind is indivisible. That is to say, it cannot think of two or more things at once. Magicians, con-artists and pickpockets make use of this very fact by using miss-direction. They draw your attention away from what they are really doing so that you won’t notice. Because you can’t focus your attention on more than one thing at a time, you don’t notice what else they’re doing. The conscious mind is not very good at keeping track of multiple things and hence can’t be relied upon to notice every little detail or hint of danger.

For that function we go back to the more primitive sub-conscious. This older part is very, very, good at noticing details and catching little things the conscious mind would miss. That’s because it records everything. Everything you’ve ever seen is stored in your mind. Although most people are unable to recall these memories. Some children with Eidetic memory (photo graphic memory) are able to recall these memories. For most though, the conscious mind is limited in this ability. Very tragic or scary events in one’s life are usually the exception. Most are able to recall very vivid details of an event that had a traumatic or scary effect on them. The sub-conscious is always watching, listening, smelling, feeling and tasting. It doesn’t have emotion. It doesn’t understand lies, sarcasm or jokes. It’s always on, even when you sleep. If you’re having a hard time understanding this, then just think of a dog.

Now the way the sub-conscious mind works with the conscious mind, is through what I would describe as interrupts. Using the analogy of a computer program. You have your main program running. This would be equivalent to your conscious mind. It runs normally doing the things you would normally do. Then you have interrupt routines. These are special programs that are activated when some input is triggered. They run only when an interrupt is received and once done, the main program takes back over. For example your moving some boxes into the garage. This action would be your main program running. Suddenly your sub-conscious detect what it infers to be a spider on your arm. This would be the input that triggers the interrupt routine.  You stop what you’re doing and immediately swipe it off your arm without even “thinking”. This would be the interrupt routine running while your main program is stopped. You then collect yourself and continue on. Your main program is now back to running.

After reading the above. You should notice a few things. Number one being, that you didn’t really have control when your sub-conscious acted and number two. It took a special input to trigger it. In this case the spider on your body. This is the key to using your sub-conscious mind. Learning to use inputs to trigger specific reactions. People gain and lose these reactions through out there lives and so it is possible to program them into your sub-conscious with a little work.

The main way sub-conscious programming is done is through the  Input+Emotion+Repetition  cycle.  This works well enough for subliminal advertising and getting rid of fears. It is however limited though, in that you can only program one thing at a time. There is another way that I personally use that has been very effective. This method creates more of a connection between your two minds. Giving you the ability to apply your “thinking” mind with your “reacting” mind.  It’s not terribly difficult to do. Although it can get mentally exhausting at first but soon becomes like second nature and like all things, if you don’t continue to do it you will slowly lose it.

So whats this big SECRET!

Why nothing really. You just have to force your two minds to work at the same time by simply observing things around you and then saying out loud what they are. There, that is all there is too it. Observe and speak. The observation activates your conscious mind and speaking it aloud binds it to your sub-conscious. You must say what it is you’re looking at out loud or it doesn’t work. The more boring the details, the better. Since walking around saying what you’re looking at would quickly get you stares and probably a trip to the mental health department. I prefer to do it while I’m driving. Reading license plates and details about the cars, road signs and the people in them will quickly start to cement the ability to notice these details without thinking about it.

For example: saying aloud Gray Honda Accord license plate 4JL3401 Toyo tires black dice in window male with black hair gold loop earring etc… As you drive by it. The smaller the details the better. Things like dents or bumper stickers. All these work. You just have to say them out loud.

As Sherlock Holmes said in the quote at the beginning “The world is full of obvious things which nobody by any chance ever observes.” with a little practice you will observe them. Using your sub-conscious to do it for you while giving your conscious mind access to this information, things will quickly become obvious to you and since all things are the result of the reactions of all other things you will be able to predict what is going to happen next just by observing the obvious.

– Gabriel Shear

Life Safety (Friend or Enemy?)

From the mind of Gabriel Shear

Tuesday, October 27, 2015

 

 

 

 

——————————————————————–

do not block nursing home fire exit

Life Safety, Friend or Enemy?

 

The Good

Every day we go on about our way, moving in and out of buildings that serve a multitude of purposes. Very few ever take the time to look at these buildings. How they’re constructed, what they have in them, what they have in common (what they don’t).

Looking around though you will begin notice certain things that exist in almost every modern building. Things like fire sprinklers and exit signs above doors, emergency lighting, fire alarm pull stations and much more. The reason they have these things is due to the fact that almost every modern country on earth has some sort of life safety code.

These codes are created to make sure that buildings don’t become death traps for the people who use them. Things like fires are usually the first thing to come to mind. Now prior to modern life safety codes, a fire within a building could (and did in a lot of cases) mean the death of people trapped inside. Now with sprinkler systems and fire extinguishers within reasonable distances along with lighted exits, a fire in a building is usually not long-lasting and people can find their way out safely.

You might be asking then how can something that save lives and protect people and property possibly anything but good?

Well to begin, central to life safety is the idea of free egress. This basically means that you can’t keep people from leaving the building under any circumstances. Very few places are exempt from this rule, mainly prisons and jails (for obvious reasons).

Making sure people have the ability to freely exit a building under any circumstance means a few different things. First, all the doors must open outward. This feature along with the use of panic door hardware also know as “crash bars” makes sure that in a panic people won’t be crushed against doors that they couldn’t open as others behind them blindly pushed forward trying to escape. This feature has to work even when there is no electrical power. So these systems are mechanical.

In places that use automatic sliding glass doors this becomes a problem when there is no power. Most people don’t know that the sliding doors will actually pop open if pushed from the inside. Once again this is so people aren’t crushed against them during a panicked rush for the exits.

The second reason is life safety also overrides building security.  Even if a door is locked from the outside it must open from the inside regardless of who is opening it.  Keyed locks must freely open from the inside to go out towards the exit(s) of the building. In electronic security, use of electronic locks must not prohibit free egress. This means magnetic locks must open when the fire alarm is triggered as well as provide free egress during normal use. Usually code require a minimum of two ways to unlock the door. Normally a passive infra-red motion detector is used to accomplish normal egress unlocking,  along with a backup exit button that physically breaks power to magnetic lock in case of failure of the motion detector.

 

The Bad

You might be beginning to see how this idea of life safety might be used by someone to get into an area that normally would be secured. By manipulating mechanisms normally designed to protect people. Entry into secured areas is possible.  Magnetic locks are very susceptible to these kinds of attacks because at their core they require power to remain secured and are easily unlocked by removing that power. Another common attack vector is the request to exit sensor. This device’s  purpose, is to notify the access control system that a person is exiting the door from the non secured side and to ignore any alarm set off by the door opening without a valid credential. Sometimes they are set to unlock the lock if triggered. The majority of these sensors are passive infrared motion detectors and can easily be fooled by objects waved in front of it through gaps around the door. Particularly the gap at the bottom of the door.

Magnetic-Door-LockRequest-To-Exit-PIR-Sensors

If a person(s) wasn’t particularly concerned with being seen. Such as a heist during business hours. Then setting off the fire alarm system. Either through a fire alarm pull-station or by causing water flow through the sprinkler system. Is an effective way to bypass many alarms and other locked access points. This would be most effective in large buildings with many people. Such as hospitals or large corporate high rises and condo units. Places like these have to be concerned with moving large numbers of people out of the building quickly,so many systems are set up to do just that.

 

There are many more ways in which life safety systems could be used to access secured areas. I will be covering those listed above and more in greater detail in future posts. As well as methods to counter some of the issues shown. For now take a look around next time you enter a building, and think about ways that life safety might be compromising your security.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How To Bypass Sliding Gate Security

From the mind of Gabriel Shear

Saturday October 24, 2015

———————————————-

 

 

How To Bypass  Sliding  Gate Security

 

 

This information is provided for educational purposes only. The author nor the website are responsible for misuse of information provided below.

 

I’m going to outline a pretty simple and effective method for bypassing the security code/card locks on about 90% of all sliding security gates.

This method relies on understanding how sliding gates works and how to use this knowledge to your benefit, if ever the need may arise.

 

A sliding gate typically consists of a few different parts:

  • Gate
  • Gate drive
  • Motor
  • Motor controller
  • Limit sensors
  • Safety sensors
  • vehicle sensors
  • Entry keypad or proximity card reader

Most gates you will see are typically chain driven and use a large roller chain and sprocket to transmit the motors rotational force into a linear one to move the gate back and forth. The other style is the direct drive. Usually only seen on high security gates, it consists of a large flat bar attached to the gate which itself is pinched between two rubber drive rollers that spin and move the bar forwards and back, opening and closing the gate.

Here are the styles:

Chain Drive Gate

Low Security Chain Drive Gate

High Security Gate

High Security Direct Drive Gate

 

Beyond the gate and motor itself, the system needs a way to control:

  • When the gate should open and close
  • How far it needs to open and close
  • When to stop (so as not to crush anyone or thing)

To achieve the above needs, a motor controller is used with an array of sensors that help it to determine when to turn on the motor and in what direction.

Typical sensors include:

Limit switches – They tell the controller when the gate has reached its fully open or closed position.

Safety sensors – Such as crush strips on the edge of the gate, so that if it hits a car or person it can stop the motor to prevent injury or damage.

Vehicle sensors – Inductive loops placed in the ground can tell the system when a vehicle is on either side of the gate or even in the gates path.

Access control – Entrance keypads or proximity card readers. Either integrated in to the controller or part of a larger building system. They allow authorized opening of the gate.

All these sensors work in conjunction with the motor controller to determine the state of the system and along with some programming what it should do an any give scenario. It is the vehicle sensors that we are going to be attacking in order to open the gate.

While a user is required to provide some sort of security credential to the system in order to operate the gate. On about 90 percent of gates  a vehicle that is leaving is usually sensed by a vehicle detection loop and the gate is automatically opened so the vehicle may leave.Vehicle Loop

This vehicle detection loop consists of a  loop of wire embedded in the ground in the path of vehicle. I works through the principle of electromagnetic induction. An explanation of how this works is that an alternating electrical current is passed through the loop. At a given frequency the loop will have a specific inductance. This inductance resists the flow of electrical current and is compared against a known value in the controller. When a metal object such as a vehicle drives over the loop. The metal acts like the metal core of a transformer and increases eddy currents do to the inductance of the loop. The increases in eddy currents are then seen by the controller and used to tell the system to open the gate.

The thing is that anything that increases the inductance of the loop will fool the system into believing a vehicle is there. any metal will increase the inductance and fool the system.

The way to bypass the security of the gate would be to slide or throw a large piece of metal over the loop. They are easy to spot as they are usually visible as cuts in the concrete/black top (as shown above). The corners of the loop are more sensitive than the center or edges. Most gates have a rather large gap underneath to slide something like a tire iron or piece of sheet metal or a length of chain. Hell one could even break the pedestal holding the keypad and use that if one was desperate enough. In either case, if the metal piece is large enough it will trigger the gate to open and the gate security has just been bypassed.

Not all gates open using vehicle detection loops, but most do and like I’ve said this should work on about 90% of gates you might encounter. I hope this information is informative and enlightening.

 

-Gabriel Shear

 

 

 

Site Update

From The Mind Of Gabriel Shear

August 25, 2015

 

 

I have been extremely busy the last few months and have not had a chance to write any new articles or how-to’s.  I hope that soon I will be back to producing very good content for my readers and to share some exciting new information I have come across.

 

-Gabriel

Master Lock Model 175 Bypass

From the mind of Gabriel Shear

Tuesday, May 26 2015

 

MasterLocks

This information is provided for educational purposes only. Neither the author nor the website are responsible for misuse of the information provided below.

 Bypassing A Master Lock

 Model 175

I was recently watching some how-to videos on You Tube over at ITS Tactical’s channel. A great channel, full of good information and reviews geared towards those with the survivalist mindset or a thirst for knowledge. One particular video on their channel caught my attention. It was a combo review/how-to on bypassing the Master lock model 175. It’s a common dial combination lock I see quite often. Usually used on construction sites, or places many different people need to access. Not needing to handle keys for multiple padlocks is a common reason for their use. I’ve known about this particular flaw in the locks construction, which allows for quickly bypassing the combination for some time now. So it was nothing new. It was a product that they were reviewing that I thought was unique. It’s called the EZ Decoder as seen below in this picture from ITS Tactical’s website.

.EZ-Decoder-01-330x220From ITS Tactical

You can view there video of how it works here, but basically you just insert the metal piece between the third dial and the lock housing. Then while pressing the shackle towards the lock you press downwards on the tool and then release the shackle. This bypasses the combination mechanism completely and quickly opens the lock.

Now I’m not posting this, just to regurgitate what ITS Tactical has already shown. While this is a great tool and certainly works. Not everyone in every situation is going to have access to one (especially if it’s illegal where you live to possess one) I wanted to add that it is not necessary to have one, in order to open one of these locks. While you could certainly look around for a thin (real thin) piece of spring steel just the right size to emulate this tool. Chance is not in your favor. Instead, it would be nice to use something more common probably something you already have on you. Keeping in line with the Gray Man mindset of keeping a low profile. Here is how you can bypass the Master Lock model 175 without the EZ Decoder tool.

One common object seen opening locks is the classic bobby pin. Good for handcuffs and good for this. Another common object is the small key ring loop,this will also work effectively. Paper clips can be hit or miss, newer ones are of such soft metal they are practically worthless even as paper clips. These are just a few ideas that I know work from experience but anything similar to shape, size and material should work as well.

To start, you first press the lock shackle in towards the lock just like with the EZ Decoder tool. This step is crucial as it releases the tension on the locking lever allowing you to manipulate it into place. While holding the shackle in, with the dial numbers facing up, you insert the make shift tool into the gap at the top of one of the dials and sharply to the left or right. Unlike the EZ Decoder tool, your only going in just a few millimeters .

IMG_1858MasterLockPin

Use a quick upwards or downwards motion and you should feel the end of the tool claw a piece of metal. You might also hear a clicking noise. Quickly release the shackle and the lock will pop open. This takes a few tries to find the metal bar behind the lock face between the dials. It helps if the tool has a sharp tip on it to try to gouge into the metal to grab it as you force it. I find with the bobby pin that rotating it as you push it upwards helps.

Here is a video showing the motion in action.

I hope this gives you a better understanding of the mechanics of these locks and how they might not provide the level of protection you expect.

– Gabriel Shear

Bypassing Automatic Sliding Door Locks

From The Mind of Gabriel Shear

Wednesday, February 11, 2015

 

Disclaimer: Information presented here is for educational purposes only. The author and website are not liable for any damages caused by the misuse of this information.

 

Suction CupSliding Glass Door

 

 

 How To Bypass Automatic Sliding Door Locks

The two items above seemingly have no connection to each other.  A suction-cup dent puller, and automatic sliding doors. At first glance totally unrelated. They do however have one special connection. We can use the dent puller to bypass the lock on the sliding glass door.

“So how exactly can you accomplish this?” You might be asking. Well thanks to life safety laws. Like the kind that require fire extinguishers and exit signs. Doors like the one pictured above can not stop people from leaving a building. It’s called free egress, and it’s meant to save lives.

Suppose a fire broke out in the store while people were still inside. Everyone’s gonna panic and run for the exits like it’s the new thing to do. Now suppose the fire caused a power outage and suddenly those power doors don’t open. As everyone crashes into the door trying escape those up front would be crushed.

To prevent that from happening, the glass panels the door is made up of are designed to break free, and swing outward if enough pressure is applied from the inside. Normally this wouldn’t matter from a security standpoint. As there are no handles or anything to grab on too from the outside. No way to pull outward.

In comes the dent puller. By applying the puller near the edge of one of the side panels you can now pull with enough force to cause it to release. The same as if someone was pushing from inside. Once the panel has released you now have access, and have bypassed the lock. Also due to the way the doors normally function, opening the door this way will generally not trigger any kind of alarm sensor tied to the door. Manufacturers have different designs, but almost all types have this feature. A little bit of MacGyver type knowledge to keep in mind.

– Gabriel Shear

 

 

 

Shaving Can Safe (Link)

From the desk of Gabriel Shear

Monday, February 9, 2015

 

Shaving can

I came across this Instructable on how to build a small safe, or slick as they’re sometimes called. Out of a shaving cream can, and thought I would pass it on. I’d originally intended to present my own how-to for a shaving can safe, but this one is so well done, and complete. I didn’t want to end up just rehashing it. The end result looks believable and the best part is that it actually still produces shaving cream.

– Gabriel Shear.

Home Manufactured Chlorates (Part 1)

From The Mind of Gabriel Shear

Saturday, November 22, 2014

 

 

Home Manufactured Chlorates (Part 1)

 

 

Disclaimer: Information presented here is for educational purposes only. 

Warning!
Chlorates are toxic. Don’t ingest or breath them in. Never mix Chlorates with sulfur,sulfides or phosphorus theses compounds can explode without warning. Do not mix with ammonia or ammonia compounds, Ammonium chlorate could be formed and this compound is also explosive. Chlorates by themselves are usually not considered explosive. Some common sense and safety equipment is required.

This is the first article on “survival chemistry” for Techno Survivalist. I’ve been really wanting to get into this area for a while now. This is the stuff that can really, and I mean REALLY help you out in times of disaster and chaos. I think chemistry is an underrated topic in survivalist circles and really that’s a shame. People tend to have this irrational fear of anything “chemical”. Thanks to popular media and overzealous politicians chemistry, as it’s taught in schools is now an empty shell of its former self. To make things worse fear of lawsuits and bad publicity has made modern chemistry sets neutered pieces of shit suitable only for the mentally handicapped.

Well… I’m setting out to change that!

Whether you have a degree in industrial chemistry or you think atom is the name of a boy. I’m going to show you how one of the greatest fields of science can give you an absolute edge over all those other “People” out there.

While picking up a good book on general chemistry like, The Golden Book of Chemistry and reading it cover to cover, is going to be one of those investments that will pay dividends in life, I don’t expect everyone reading this to have already made that investment. So every thing in these articles will be laid out in an easy to follow format with photo’s and illustrations.

So continue to read…

 

This is part one of a three-part series on manufacturing Chlorates at home. I’m going to show you three different methods of home production. Now there are a few different types of Chlorates, but for our sake we are only going to focus on two of them: Sodium Chlorate and Potassium Chlorate two of the metal Chlorates. So if your asking yourself  “what are Chlorates?” Let me elaborate…

Chlorates are powerful oxidizers, meaning in this sense they can provide a source of oxygen for chemical reactions with other materials. This is an important function in chemistry in general, and very important too survivalists.

First off oxidizers are powerful disinfectants and are able to disinfect water and other materials with ease through the destructive oxidation of organic materials (bleach i.e. Sodium Hypochlorite and Hydrogen Peroxide are also common oxidizers). Oxidizers are also used to provide the oxygen necessary to burn fuels such as the potassium nitrate used in black powder. Where the potassium nitrate is the oxidizer and carbon(Charcoal) is the fuel.

Chlorates were also used as a low velocity high explosive commonly called Cheddite during WW2 by various resistance fighters in Europe. It was used as a sort of mold-able explosive and grenade filler when more conventional munitions were low. We will discussing the uses of Chlorates more in-depth in later articles for you education. For now though this series of articles will go in to the manufacture of Chlorates, more specifically there home manufacture.

 

 

Bleach Method

The most over the counter method is the bleach method.  Common household bleach ( Sodium Hypochlorite) can be disproportioned into sodium chlorate and sodium chloride (salt) by its thermal decomposition ( we boil the shit outta it). Water is also evaporated off during this process concentrating the solution making its extraction easier.

What you will need:

Bleach, preferably the 10% kind sold as liquid chlorine for pools. Regular 6.25% laundry bleach can be used but you will need more of it to get the same amount of chlorate as the 10% kind. You will also need potassium chloride( not totally necessary) . This is sold as a salt substitute called no salt or something like it. You can also purchase large bags of it for use in water softeners as a salt substitute.

Potassium chlorideLiquid ChlorinatorNo Salt

 

Equipment setup:

You will need a heat source. A container to boil the bleach in. As you can imagine hot boiling bleach is pretty corrosive. Glass works best or ceramic. I find that large coffee pots work great as they are also made of borosilicate glass like professional lab glassware and are resistant to thermal shock so they wont shatter from an open flame. Older Vision brand glass cookware is also good if you can find it. (check thrift stores) You will also need a measuring cup and a strainer or funnel with something to filter with (paper towel or coffee filter). Finally some broken pieces of glass to be used as boiling chips to help prevent boil over of the bleach.

SetupBoiling ChipsStrainer

 

Manufacture:

Boiling bleach is not as bad as one might imagine. Its best though to do it with plenty of ventilation. Outside or Next to a window with a fan works well. You might want to be discrete about it though since your mass media watching neighbors might believe your cooking Meth and call the police on you.  No fun trying to explain how no, you’re not cooking drugs and no you’re not a criminal.

Start out by placing a liter of  bleach in the container your going to use to boil it down with. This amount can be scaled up or down so what ever works for you. Anything less than a half liter though and the yield of chlorate is so low it’s not really worth it. Next throw in the boiling chips you made by smashing one of your wives drinking glasses. Turn up the heat and wait…

Boiling Bleach

Now The bleach actually has to boil, (none of this simmering shit) for the Sodium Hypochlorite to disproportionate to Chlorate and chloride. The bleach will slowly boil down to roughly 1/2 its original volume. At about this time you will see crystals of salt began to form in the bottom of the solution. At this point remove the container from the heat and let the solution cool.

Finished Boiling

 

At this point you have a choice to make. If you don’t have potassium chloride. you will have to make sodium chlorate. This isn’t the optimal choice as the end product will be contaminated with salt and extraction is more slow and difficult.  If you do have potassium chloride than you can make potassium chlorate which is easier to extract, and the end product will be a lot more pure.  Also as a side note sodium chlorate is more hygroscopic (absorbs water) then potassium chlorate which can be a problem with storage and its usage.

Sodium Chlorate

Start by pouring the solution into another container leaving the salt crystals behind. Then cool down the solution in the freezer as cold as possible. Decant the cold solution into another container leaving behind any new crystals of salt in the bottom of the container.  The solution now has to have the remaining water evaporated off. This is rather difficult but can be done.  Low heat or dry hot air with the aid of a desiccant such as Calcium Chloride sold as Rid-X for removing moisture from buildings can help. Place The moist crystals of sodium chlorate in a large zip lock bag with the desiccant and leave it to dry for a couple of days. After its dry you will have impure crystals of sodium chlorate.

 

Potassium Chlorate

In another container, start by making a saturated solution of the Potassium Chloride in hot water by dissolving as much of the chloride as possible until no more will dissolve. Next, take the boiled bleach solution and decant off the solution into the measuring cup leaving behind the salt crystals. Now pour in an equal amount of the saturated potassium chloride solution into the measuring cup containing the bleach solution until you have added the same volume (i.e. if you had half a cup of bleach solution add half a cup of the potassium chloride solution). Stir the solution well then put it into the freezer to cool down. As the solution cools crystals of potassium chlorate will start to appear in the solution. When no more crystals appear (usually overnight) put a filter in the funnel and pour the contents of the container into the filter letting the liquid flow through while your crystals of chlorate remain in the filter. You can wash the crystals with ice-cold water (only) to remove more traces of salt from them ( you will lose a little chlorate doing this).  take the filter with the crystals on it and let it dry in the air.  You will now have relatively pure crystals of potassium chlorate.

Potassium Chloride SolutionBleach SolutionMixed Solution

Potassium Chloride solution and boiled down bleach solution then an equal volume of both.

Potassium ChlorateChlorate CrystalsDry Chlorate

Chlorate Crystals in cold solution and then after filtering and rinsing and finally dried and ready.

 

 

The Science

Now to understand what exactly the hell is going on during all this!

Well bleach is nothing but water and Sodium Hypochlorite in solution. Sodium Hypochlorite is a chemical that has one atom of sodium (Na) one atom of oxygen (O) and one atom of chlorine (Cl). Its chemical formula is NaOCl it’s basically table salt (sodium chloride) NaCl with one oxygen (O) atom attached . When we heat up the bleach water is boiled off until the solution is concentrated enough for the NaOCl to start breaking down. It takes three molecules of Sodium Hypochlorite to make one molecule of Sodium chlorate and two molecules of Sodium Chloride (Salt)  3NaOCl -> 2NaCl + NaClO3  As you can see from this formula Sodium Chlorate has one atom of sodium (Na) one of Chlorine (Cl) and three atoms of oxygen (O). It’s these three oxygen (O) atoms that are used to oxidize other chemicals during reactions.

Now to produce potassium chlorate, instead of the sodium chlorate we are left with from the first reaction. we use a process called displacement. Now when a molecule such as Potassium Chloride KCl  is in solution with a solvent ( water in this case) it actually breaks into its respective pieces. In this state they are called ions the ions in this case are Potassium (K) and Chlorine (Cl) if you were to remove the water they would recombine to make potassium chloride. When the Potassium chloride solution and Sodium Chlorate solution are mixed together its a large soup of ions all combining and breaking apart in equilibrium (they are in equal proportions). The magic happens when we cool the solution in the freezer. As it turns out, you can dissolve a lot of potassium chlorate in hot water but very little in cold water. This is not the case for Sodium Chlorate, Sodium Chloride or Potassium Chloride the other possible combinations of the various ions. As the solution cools the ions recombine to make potassium chlorate that precipitates out of the cold solution first. Leaving the remaining Ions of sodium and chlorine in the solution. The reaction goes NaClO3 + KCl -> KClO3 + NaCl  The reaction only happens because Potassium chlorate has a lower solubility in cold water then either Sodium Chlorate or Sodium Chloride (salt).

We will take a look at another method, which gives high yields in the next article. As well as uses for manufactured Chlorates in later articles.

P.s. Don’t forget to print these out! A hard copy is safe copy!

– Gabriel Shear

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Holding Your Breath Under Water

From The Mind Of Gabriel Shear

Thursday, October 2 2014

___________________________________

Training To Hold Your Breath Underwater.

Disclaimer: Information presented here is for educational purposes only, I assume no liability for its use.

Holding your breath under water for extended periods of time, is something most people never do. Other then maybe as children trying to best one another at the pool. It’s not a skill that comes in handy very often for most people, and so most people don’t know how to train themselves to do it.

I spent most of my summers as a teenager skin diving for fishing lures and other treasures on the bottom of lakes around where I grew up. I would earn cash by selling them back to the fishermen on the shore and I also found quite a bit of jewelry, wallets, sunglasses and other valuables (Drunk house boaters kick all kinds of shit in the water). I could dive to depths of over 70 feet and then cruse the bottom for about two minutes before having to surface for air. Now two minutes may not seem like a long time but try holding your breath for that long while sitting still, then imagine swimming around while doing it. That shit is tough I can tell you that I didn’t start out going that long. I had to train myself. Whatever your reason for wanting to learn how. I will outline the way I trained so that you too can learn as well.

I want to give you some information on the reason why you panic while holding your breath. Take a deep breath and hold it. As you sit there you will start to feel an uncomfortable sensation in your chest. A burning sensation that causes your heart to race your eyes to start watering and eventually your gasps for air. This is normally the feeling we associate with suffocation. It is not you suffocating. What you are feeling is the buildup of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) gas in your lungs. We breath in air, absorb the oxygen out of it and expel the waste CO2 gas as we breath out. When you don’t breath out the waste gases, you build up the concentration of CO2 gas in your lungs. Now because your lungs have water in them, that water starts to absorb the CO2 gas and convert to carbonic acid (soda water) This acid literally burns the lining of your lungs and that is what you feel. As long as you can remove the CO2 you will feel fine even if there is no oxygen in the air, eventually passing out and dying. This happens to pilots of small aircraft that fly to high without supplemental oxygen. They fly up too high where the air is thin with little oxygen, they don’t feel like anything is wrong but they are suffocating. They eventually pass out and can die. Incidentally I happened to see this as a method of murder on a TV show once. They filled the room with nitrogen gas and the person, unaware that there was no oxygen in the room died. After a while the nitrogen dissipated leaving no trace of the cause of death.

Your going to need a place to train. This won’t work in a swimming pool. You will need a deep body of water. Around 90 feet or so should work. Like all water activities you should do this with a partner encase something happens you won’t drown. Lastly you will need some big rocks and something to float them on (A large log works well).

Start by taking the rocks and whatever you have found to float them on and go out into the water till a suitably deep area has been found. Take one of the rocks in one arm and using your other arm pinch your nose. Take a few deep breaths to clear as much CO2 out of your lungs as possible but don’t hyperventilate. Let go of your float and let the rocks weight quickly take you to the bottom. Your going to get to the bottom pretty fast so you will have to continually equalize the pressure in your ears as you go deeper. That’s why you need one free hand. So when you get to the bottom just let go of the rock and start to swim to the surface. Its gonna seem like an eternity and you’re gonna be forced to hold your breath for a lot longer then you normally would be able too  and basically that’s the key. Your forcing yourself to hold your breath so you can dull the aching response your body normally gives. You have no choice but to keep going till you’ve reached the surface. By continually doing this your going to build up the ability to hold your breath for longer and longer. Once you can reach the surface without feeling like your dying, try swimming around when your reach the bottom and then start to surface. This technique works really well and it’s amazing how fast your body adapts. It won’t be to long till your able to stay down for a couple of minutes or more.

Another game I used to play with friends to increase our endurance involved letting a tarp sink to the bottom and then pulling it back to the surface. Sometimes we would take turns because we couldn’t get it up on a single breath. One person going down and bringing it halfway up and then the other person diving down and grabbing it to bring it the rest of the way. Kinda like running in sand.

– Gabriel Shear